The topic on the ejaculations in the Arabic language could be a doctoral thesis work, only from the linguistic point of view and its pragmatic sense, with this I want to emphasize that this post does not have that intention, obviously, for formal reasons, content and means of dissemination.
The purpose of this comment is to specify and clarify its sociolinguistic use and cultural importance within Arabic-speaking societies, and even non-Arabic-speaking Muslim communities, and Christian Arabic-speaking communities, without making a distinction between age, sex and religion.
To do this, we have to analyze the term and its delimitation within linguistics, to be able to make a synopsis of such an extensive topic, and try to see the possible connections with current Spanish, either through the lexicographical or pragmatic way, is the foundation of this post.
In the first place, we must define the concept of ejaculation, from the Latin iaculatorius, which is defined as «a short and fervent prayer». There are sources that indicate synonyms: «prayer, rogative and invocation» and the use or use of these was initially religious, regardless of the religion that is processed.
The ejaculations as a linguistic process have had their semantic and pragmatic evolution produced by the habitual use in almost all the contexts of daily life in the Spanish of the last century, and currently it lasts in people of a certain age but that is reflected in the Spanish of America, without this distinction, its linguistic use being coincident with current Arabic.
The phenomenon of the ejaculations is quantitatively and qualitatively relevant in the Arabic culture and language and due to the symbiosis with the Hispanic culture due to the contact of more than VII centuries, which can be verified in the literature of the Middle Ages, in the proverbs, etc … its disuse is marked at the end of the 20th century, however, in American Spanish, its use continues to prevail today.
From the lexicographical point of view, an ejaculation is an idiom or an idiomaticism that is, it is a fixed and invariable expression, the meaning of which is not made up of the set of words that constitute it.
And as such, we could encompass it in the phraseology, according to Gloria Corpas Pastor in this regard: «Any expression that presents semantic specialization is fixed, but the reverse is not necessarily the case» 325. The origins of phraseology are very ancient, which could be traced to the record and compilation of primitive literary writings. The two languages under study share this characteristic since their transmission has been through proverbs
For this reason, it is inferred that the phraseology has had so many designations: expressions, sayings, idioms, turns, formulas, ways of saying, set phrases, sayings, adages; phrases, phraseologies or idioms.
There are many authors who corroborate that phraseology has its origins in the USSR, the works of Viktor Vladimirovich Vinográdov, which has not only spread in the countries of the USSR, but has also provided the basis for the studies that have gone on. emerging in the European context.
In the Arabic language, an ejaculation is an expression that the speaker uses in all situations of life; to say hello, to express gratitude, to declare disagreement or apologize, among others.
In this type of ejaculation the name of God appears, الله, but this class of expressions have transcended so much in society due to their abusive use that they have engendered other types of idioms or phrases in which the word of God is omitted, its place is an image that characterizes a quality of it.
The ejaculation not only has its representation in verbal communication, but also in writing. It is acceptable that the beginning of a letter, both formal and informal, begins with the formula:
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
(¡ bism allah arrahman arrahim!)
The construction of this type of phrase in verbal communication has two parts, the sender’s phrase and the receiver’s phrase, these being of the same linguistic characteristics. That is, depending on the sender’s phrase, the receiver has to answer his/ her counterparts, and does not allow for others.
Within the different situations or contexts that arise, some ejaculations or others are used:
- Greetings and farewells: when meeting someone or entering a store, …
- May peace be with you! ------------ عليك السلام(As-alam ‘alayk). and your answer: will be the same---- السلام وعليك السلام.
- When you go somewhere or say goodbye:
- May God protect you and take care of you! ----------------- حفظكم الله ورعاكم (hafidakum ‘Allah wa ra‘akum).
- God bless you -------------------- بارك الله فيك-بارك الله فيك (baraka ‘Allah fik).
- To express surprise:
- Glory be to Allah or praise be to God--------- سبحان الله (subhan ‘Allah).
- Praise God ------------------------ الحمد الله (al-hamdulillah).
- Promises and oaths:
- I swear to God---------------- والله (wallah).
- God willing ------------------- إن شاء الله ('in sa Allah).
- God bless you --------------- الله يبارك لك / فيك ‘Allah yubarik lak).
- Express appreciation:
May God be kind to you or may God compensate you ------ جزاكم جازاكم الله خيرا الله خيرا (yazakum ‘Allah) y su respuesta: وجازاكم خيرا(wa yazakum).
- That express misfortunes or regrets:
- God have mercy on him ------------ رحمه الله (rahimah ‘Allah).
- We belong to God and to him we must return! ------- إنا لله وإنا إليه راجعون( Inna lillahi wa inna ilayhi rayikum).
- God bless you ----------- اللع يرضى عنك / عليك الله يرضي (‘Allah yardi).
- With God's help --------- بعون الله بعون الله (‘Allah bi‘awan).
- Qué Dios me perdone------- أستغفر الله (Astagfir ‘Allah).
- God is enough for us--------- حسبن حسبنا الله الله (‘Allah hasbuna) it is formulated as resignation.
- I take refuge in God---------- أعوذ بالله (a‘ud billah).
- There is no force or power but in God-----
- Oh my god------------ يا لطيف (ya latif).
This expression is curious, they all consist of the name of God, but it says (latif), beautiful pretty, etc…. It is these phrases that derive from the ejaculations and that do not contain the name of God, but their synonym or image (“the 99 names of God”) and whose oral transmission has caused the linguistic use to expand within the Arabic-speaking speakers. and non-Arab Muslims.
- Oh God give the support! ………… يا رزاق (ya rashaq).
- Oh Generous! —————– يا كريم (ya Karim).
- Oh merciful! ——————– يا رحيم (ya rahim).
According to Muslim theology there are 4 thousand names, the names of God; One thousand are known by God, another thousand by God and the angels, another thousand are known by God, the angels and the prophets, and the last thousand by God, the angels, the prophets and the faithful….
Al-Asmā ‘al-Husnà (الأسماء hgpskn), in Arabic, «the most beautiful names», transliterated Al asmá ul jusna, also called the ninety-nine names of God or Asmá ul-lahil jusna (the sublime names of God; are the ways of referring to God in Islam).
With the purpose of reflecting the linguistic richness, it is to be imagined that, if this number is given to designate the name of God, or to denominate another 100 words lion, the number of registered words is the most voluminous of all languages.
The ejaculations are a fundamental piece in verbal and written communication between Arabic speakers whose importance has been underestimated in teaching foreigners of this complex language, which increases the feelings of all of us who have been interested in it, taking a phrase from an Arabist with whom I identify: «Arabic makes you feel eternally a student», it is a challenge for eternity.
The reason for this feeling is formed by many elements of this language that make it the most difficult language in the world and according to the relativistic theories of Sapir and Whorf they state that “the grammatical structure of a language determines the reality of its inhabitants .. . ”, There is no correlation between cultures, which makes translation and internalization difficult:
1st.-The most voluminous dictionary:” Lisan al-‘ Arab ”, which collects 4 million words, compared to Spanish that the RAE, collects 200,000 meanings of which 19,000 are Americanisms.
2nd.- Diglossia, a characteristic phenomenon of this language that we are only going to define, because its analysis would expand the structure and content of this comment.
1. f. Bilingualism, especially when one of the languages enjoys superior social or political prestige or privilege.
2. f. Anat. Disposition of the tongue in double or bifid form.
3º.- The linguistic idiosyncrasy of Arabic and the feelings of its creators, the Bedouins, who give this language. On the one hand, a rational or mathematical sense and on the other, physical or metaphysical to each of these mathematical conjunctions. Creating endless vocabulary and taking the synonymy process to its limits, reaching its antonym in many cases.
With this informative post, I want it to be inferred that ejaculations have a daily linguistic use, that it has its religious origin but that its use has transcended the cultural tradition of its speakers without having a distinction of religion, sex or age.
Regarding the correlation it has with Spanish, it is obvious that from a lexicographical point of view there are 4,000 words of Arabic origin as a result of the cultural, socioeconomic and political relationship of the centuries of contact in the peninsula.
Wherewith the use of this type of phrase was also common in Spain not so long ago, which has been transmitted to the following generations through literature and is still valid in the Spanish of America.
Thus, the best representation of this heritage that persists in Spanish is his farewell «Adiós» or ¡ojalá! … ( Bye or if only).
With this, and to end this review, I fervently wish that the state security forces … (Islamologists, teachers, Arabic calligraphic experts and criminologists … and I don’t know what else …) who affirm that these types of ejaculations are linguistic signs that they relate to «Jihad» (a term that they do not know its meaning, but that they use too much). Do not proceed to stop me for saying this expression;
¡ADIÓS! … GOODBYE! … I ask God that neither me, you nor anyone else put us in jail … especially because they will not have space, or prisons for so many people and because their little empirical statements are an offense linguistics in general and forensic Arabic linguistics, in particular.